There are various causes of diabetes. Various factors causes type 1 and type 2 diabetes which are discussed below.
Causes of Diabetes Type 1
The origin of type 1 diabetes differs from that of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which occurs when your body attacks its own cells. In type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are destroyed. Thus, insulin cannot be produced to lower your blood glucose after meals and snacks. As a result, blood glucose is not able to enter the cells, causing glucose levels in the blood to
become elevated. A high level of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. Hypermeans a high level, and glycemia refers to blood glucose concentrations. As a result of the deficiency in insulin production, type 1 diabetes must be treated with insulin, given as injections, delivered via an insulin pump, or sometimes inhaled. Also Check: Controllable and Uncontrollable Risk Factors Of Heart Disease
Causes of Diabetes Type 2
Type 2 diabetes occurs when body cells cannot properly use the insulin produced by the pancreas. This is called insulin resistance (i.e., impaired insulin action in which body cells are resistant to the action of insulin). Insulin normally allows glucose to enter cells in the body to provide energy; but with insulin resistance, the glucose cannot enter the cells and thus remains in the blood. In type 2 diabetes, the body’s
ability to produce insulin usually decreases over time, which also contributes to hyperglycemia. As a result, some people with type 2 diabetes must also take supplemental insulin to control their blood glucose levels. Also Check: 15 Food Hacks For Healthy Life
Obesity is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, in particular upper body fat stores (i.e., an apple-shaped physique). In the past, type 2 diabetes was called adult-onset diabetes because of the typically older age of onset. Unfortunately, the increased incidence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has resulted in type 2 diabetes developing at earlier ages, thus exposing people to elevated blood glucose for
longer periods of time and increasing their risk of health complications, such as kidney, eye, nerve, and heart disease. Other factors in addition to excessive body weight and inactivity increase the chances of developing diabetes :
- Age (greater than 45 years old)
- Family history (parent or sibling)
- Other health concerns, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure
- Certain racial and ethnic groups, including non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives
- Women who had gestational diabetes or have had a baby weighing 9 pounds (4 kg) or more at birth
So these were some causes of diabetes. Although a number of factors cannot be changed (e.g., your race or age), you can control your body weight and physical activity level.
What is diabetic ketoacidosis, and how can I avoid it?
When your blood glucose levels remain elevated, the glucose needed for energy cannot enter your cells. As a result, fat is used for energy, resulting in the production of ketones (acids), which first build up in the blood and eventually also appear in the urine. You can check for ketones with a simple at-home urine test. Situations that may result in ketones include insufficient insulin or inadequate calorie intake. Usually, ketoacidosis develops slowly, but if you become sick and are vomiting, it could develop within a few hours. Early signs include thirst or a dry mouth, frequent urination, high glucose levels, and high ketones in the urine. Over time other symptoms may appear, including constant feelings of tiredness, dry or flushed skin, nausea or vomiting, fruity-smelling breath, and confusion. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious medical condition, and if you have these signs or symptoms, drink plenty of water and contact your health care provider immediately.